A Cambrian embryo fossil exposed by acid etching on rock. The polygonal pattern suggests that the embryo was in the multicellular blastula stage of development. Tiny, spherical fossils found in southern China appear to be the embryos of a previously unknown animal.
The fossils come from the Cambrian, a period dating from 540 million to 485 million years ago and known for an explosion of diversity. Some of the organisms that appeared during the Cambrian, such as the bug-like trilobite, had exoskeletons and other hard parts that fossilized nicely. Others, including sponges and worms, were made of soft tissue that rarely preserves.
Researchers Jesse Broce of Virginia Tech, James Schiffbauer of the University of Missouri and their colleagues were searching for these rare soft-tissue fossils in limestone from the Hubei province of southern China when they found something even more rare: tiny spheres, including some with polygonal patterns on their surfaces. These itsy-bitsy fossils are most likely fossilized embryos, the researchers report in the March issue of the Journal of Paleontology. The fossils come from the third stage of the Cambrian, dating back to around 521 million to 541 million years ago. [See Images of a Giant Cambrian Creature]
“We found over 140 spherically shaped fossils, some of which include features that are reminiscent of division-stage embryos, essentially frozen in time,” Schiffbauer said in a statement.
The researchers began their investigation by attempting to dissolve fossils out of the limestone from China’s Shuijingtuo formation with acid, but that method seriously damaged or destroyed the spherical fossils. Researchers then hand-chiseled the rock into millimeter- or centimeter-sized chunks, exposing the fossil surfaces manually.
From there, the researchers investigated the spheres with a variety of techniques, including slicing them into thin sections, which can be viewed under a microscope. The scientists also imaged the fossils with X-ray and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray techniques.
The results showed specimens with a phosphate-rich envelope surrounding a ball of calcite. (The organic compounds that once made up the embryos have long since mineralized.) Some of the spheres had polygonal patterns that look very similar to those seen on fossilized embryos from Markuelia, a Cambrian worm-like creature. The researchers believe that these specimens are blastulas, which are an early, multicellular stage of embryonic development.
It remains a mystery what these embryos would have grown up to become. Fossilized embryos from a variety of species pop up occasionally in the fossil record, from a 380-million-year old fish with an embryo still in her belly to dinosaur embryos still curled up inside their eggs.
(Stephanie Pappas, Senior Writer/ LiveScience.com)
by Dr. Joseph D. Lim
At the annual meeting of the European Society of cardiology in Vienna, Austria, French researcher Dr. Nicolas Amabile said that patients with artery disease often had bad teeth caused by periodontitis or periodontal disease.
In this condition, the gums become swollen due to the accumulation of plaque around the teeth. As the gums become irritated they recede and there is pain when eating hot, cold or sweet foods. Untreated, teeth loosen and fall out. This can be prevented with good oral hygiene in the form of brushing, flossing and regular visits to the dentist.
“Your mouth is normally teeming with bacteria. Usually you can keep these bacteria under control with good oral health care, such as daily brushing and flossing. Saliva is also a key defense against bacteria and viruses. It contains enzymes that destroy bacteria in different ways. But harmful bacteria can sometimes grow out of control and lead to periodontitis, a serious gum infection,” warned Mayo Clinic doctors.
Amabile found that the more severe periodontitis is, the greater the risk of heart disease. He arrived at this conclusion after he and his team of French dentists and cardiologists studied 131 patients who were referred to their hospital in Marseille, France.
“The most severe teeth disease was associated with the most widespread arterial lesions. Since periodontitis is easily accessible to treatment with antibiotics and dental care, one might think its treatment could also be beneficial for coronary artery disease. This has to be confirmed with larger studies but may represent a new original approach to handle heart disease in the future,” he told Jenny Hopes of the Daily Mail.
Researchers have yet to discover how gum disease triggers heart disease but they suspect that bacteria from gum disease can enter the bloodstream and travel through the arteries to the heart, posing a risk to cardiovascular health.
“When your gums are healthy, bacteria in your mouth usually don’t enter your bloodstream. However, gum disease may provide bacteria a port of entry into your bloodstream. Sometime invasive dental treatments can also allow bacteria to enter your bloodstream. And medications or treatments that reduce saliva flow or disrupt the normal balance of bacteria in your mouth may also lead to oral changes, making it easier for bacteria to enter your blood stream. Some researchers believe that these bacteria and inflammation from your mouth are linked to other health problems in the rest of your body,” said Mayo Clinic doctors.
To preserve your good health, don’t forget to brush daily, especially after meals. Make it a daily habit to save your heart.
Dr. Joseph D. Lim is the Dean of the College of Dentistry, National University, President/CEO of Dr. Smile Dental Care & Laser Center and honorary fellow of the Asian Oral Implant Academy and the Japan College of Oral Implantologists. For questions on dental health, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org or text 0917-8591515.
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“WHAT if a disaster of cataclysmic proportions hits Metro Manila, home to more than 15 million Filipinos—and the seat of the nation’s capital? Are we ready to cope? Thousands of lives will be lost and casualties can run to millions. It will be a harrowing sight that will surely bring the nation to its knees. That is, if we consider the potential disasters on a grand scale, such as the recent earthquake in Bohol and typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) that razed big parts of Leyte to the ground. What if, instead of the Visayas, Yolanda took a path straight through the heart of the National Capital Region?” – Frederick Fabian
GLOBE Telecom cell sites have been issued radiation-safety certificates by the Department of Health, another indication that radio frequency signals coming from such facilities do not pose any adverse health impact.
“The radiation-safety certificates for every cell site that we have in the country are a proof that concerns over potential health hazard coming from base stations are without basis,” said Emmanuel Estrada, Globe Head of Network Technologies Strategy.
The radiation-safety certificates issued by the health department are based on guidelines issued by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) on maximum human exposures to radio frequency fields.
“Radio signals follow the so called ‘inverse-square law of physics’. This means that the signal level from a cell is radically reduced as the distance from the antenna increases. Thus the radiation at ground level is substantially lower compared to radiation levels emitted by the two-way radio of security personnel or a cell phone,” Estrada emphasized. #OpinYon #Health #Globe
read cont | http://bit.ly/19QW0sL — with Globe Phil.
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by: Dr. Joseph D. Lim
THE gum is more important than we think.
This is because, contrary to popular belief, it’s not tooth decay that is the major cause of tooth loss – it’s gum disease. About eight out of 10 American adults, for example, have some form of gum disease.
One gum disease, gingivitis, is caused by toxins from the bacteria that accumulate in the plaque that turns into yellow-colored tartar. The bacteria attack the bones beneath the gums. As a result, an unhealthy gum starts to lose teeth.
The symptoms of gingivitis include swollen, red gums, bad breath, bleeding and sore gums when brushing. When the gums are swollen, red, tender or bleed easily and the teeth looses, see the dentist as soon as possible.
Left untreated, the supporting bone may dissolve, and when this happens, your teeth may fall out.
Dentists recommend special attention when brushing to where the teeth meet the gums and along the gum line and the tongue and hard-to-reach areas such as the backs of the teeth. To reach small gaps, use dental floss. #OpinYon #Health
read cont | http://bit.ly/H0RtrS
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by: Dr. Joseph D. Lim
IF you are age 40 or over, chances are you will have gum disease.
While it is commonly experienced during middle age, gum recession actually starts during the teenage years.
When a tooth appears longer than normal or the spaces between teeth seem to grow, you are likely to have the malady.
Symptoms include teeth that are very sensitive to stimuli (hot or spicy food for example), visible roots of the tooth, notched tooth at the gum line, tooth dislocation and cavities below the gum line.
It is easy to prevent gum disease with simple habits like flossing and brushing, avoiding tobacco, eating properly and not piercing the lip or tongue.
Over-aggressive brushing that cause gum recession may be evaded with gentle brushing with a soft toothbrush.
Regular professional dental cleanings prevent plaque buildup that also causes gum recession. Scaling and root planning may be necessary to clean the teeth and heal the inflammation in the gums caused by tartar.
It is necessary to avoid gum disease because it leads to other serious ailments. #OpinYon #LifeStyle #Gums
read cont | http://bit.ly/1gmjy9R
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